分類:Covert Redirect

eBay Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

ebay-logo

eBay Covert Redirect Vulnerability Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

(1) WebSite:
ebay.com



“eBay Inc. (stylized as ebay, formerly eBay) is an American multinational corporation and e-commerce company, providing consumer to consumer & business to consumer sales services via Internet. It is headquartered in San Jose, California. eBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in 1995, and became a notable success story of the dot-com bubble. Today, it is a multi-billion dollar business with operations localized in over thirty countries.

 

The company manages eBay.com, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a broad variety of goods and services worldwide. In addition to its auction-style sales, the website has since expanded to include “Buy It Now" shopping; shopping by UPC, ISBN, or other kind of SKU (via Half.com); online classified advertisements (via Kijiji or eBay Classifieds); online event ticket trading (via StubHub); online money transfers (via PayPal) and other services." (Wikipedia)

 



(2) Vulnerability Description:

eBay web application has a computer cyber security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect attacks.

The vulnerability occurs at “ebay.com/rover” page with “&mpre” parameter, i.e.

http://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-67261-24966-0/2?mtid=691&kwid=1&crlp=1_263602&itemid=370825182102&mpre=http://www.google.com

The vulnerability can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Firefox (26.0) in Ubuntu (12.04) and IE (9.0.15) in Windows 7.


 

 

 

(2.1) When a user is redirected from eBay to another site, eBay will check whether the redirected URL belongs to domains in eBay’s whitelist, e.g.
google.com

If this is true, the redirection will be allowed.

 

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from eBay to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from eBay directly.

 

One of the vulnerable domain is,
http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net (Google’s Ad system)

 

 

 

(2.2) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://itinfotech.tumblr.com/“. We can suppose that this webpage is malicious.

 

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

Poc Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a4H-u17Y9ks

 

Blog Detail:
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/11/ebay-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html



 

 



(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect was found and dubbed by a Mathematics PhD student Wang Jing from School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

After Covert Redirect was published, it is kept in some common databases such as SCIP, OSVDB, Bugtraq, and X-Force. Its scipID is 13185, while OSVDB reference number is 106567. Bugtraq ID: 67196. X-Force reference number is 93031.

 

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

Google Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

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Bypass Google Open Redirect Filter Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

— Google Covert Redirect Vulnerability Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

 

 

 

(1) WebSite:
google.com

 

“Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of its profits are derived from AdWords, an online advertising service that places advertising near the list of search results.

 

The corporation has been estimated to run more than one million servers in data centers around the world (as of 2007). It processes over one billion search requests and about 24 petabytes of user-generated data each day (as of 2009). In December 2013, Alexa listed google.com as the most visited website in the world. Numerous Google sites in other languages figure in the top one hundred, as do several other Google-owned sites such as YouTube and Blogger. Its market dominance has led to prominent media coverage, including criticism of the company over issues such as search neutrality, copyright, censorship, and privacy." (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Google web application has a computer cyber security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect attacks.

The vulnerability exists at “Logout?" page with “&continue" parameter, i.e.


The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

(2.1) When a user is redirected from Google to another site, Google will check whether the redirected URL belongs to domains in Google’s whitelist (The whitelist usually contains websites belong to Google), e.g.
docs.google.com
googleads.g.doubleclick.net

 

If this is true, the redirection will be allowed.

 

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from Google to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from Google directly.

 

One of the vulnerable domain is,
googleads.g.doubleclick.net (Google’s Ad System)

 

 

 

(2.2) Use one webpage for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope“. We can suppose that this webpage is malicious.

Blog Detail:
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/11/covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on.html

 

 

 

 

 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect was found and dubbed by a Mathematics PhD student Wang Jing from School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

 

After Covert Redirect was published, it is kept in some common databases such as SCIP, OSVDB, Bugtraq, and X-Force. Its scipID is 13185, while OSVDB reference number is 106567. Bugtraq ID: 67196. X-Force reference number is 93031.

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

 

More Details:
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/11/google-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2014/Nov/29
http://cxsecurity.com/issue/WLB-2014110106
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120141145350181/
https://infoswift.wordpress.com/2014/05/25/google-web-security/
http://tetraph.tumblr.com/post/119490394042/securitypost#notes
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/11/covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on.html
http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_706af10
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559165319575371776
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/google-based-on-googleads-g-doubleclick-net/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-security/google-covert-g-doubleclick-net/
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/05/25/google-web-security/

OAuth and OpenID Users Threatened by New Security Flaw, Covert Redirect

heartbleed_bug_hackers

 

A serious flaw in two widely used security standards could give anyone access to your account information at Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter and many other online services. The flaw, dubbed “Covert Redirect" by its discoverer, exists in two open-source session-authorization protocols, OAuth 2.0 and OpenID.

 

Both standards are employed across the Internet to let users log into websites using their credentials from other sites, such as by logging into a Web forum using a Facebook or Twitter username and password instead of creating a new account just for that forum.

 

Attackers could exploit the flaw to disguise and launch phishing attempts from legitimate websites, said the flaw’s finder, Mathematics Ph.D. student Wang Jing of the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

 

Wang believes it’s unlikely that this flaw will be patched any time soon. He says neither the authentication companies (those with which users have an account, such as Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn, among others) nor the client companies (sites or apps whose users log in via an account from an authentication company) are taking responsibility for fixing the issue.

 

“The vulnerability is usually due to the existing weakness in the third-party websites," Wang writes on his own blog. “However, they have little incentive to fix the problem."

 

The biggest danger of Covert Redirect is that it could be used to conduct phishing attacks, in which cybercriminals seize login credentials, by using email messages containing links to malicious websites disguised as something their targets might want to visit.

 

Normal phishing attempts can be easy to spot, because the malicious page’s URL will usually be off by a couple of letters from that of the real site. The difference with Covert Redirect is that an attacker could use the real website instead by corrupting the site with a malicious login popup dialogue box.

 

For example, say you regularly visit a given forum (the client company), to which you log in using your credentials from Facebook (the authentication company). Facebook uses OAuth 2.0 to authenticate logins, so an attacker could put a corrupted Facebook login popup box on this forum.

 

If you sign in using that popup box, your Facebook data will be released to the attacker, not to the forum. This means the attacker could possibly gain access to your Facebook account, which he or she could use to spread more socially engineered attacks to your Facebook friends.

 

Covert Redirect could also be used in redirection attacks, which is when a link takes you to a different page than the one expected.

 

Wang told CNET authentication companies should create whitelists — pre-approved lists that block any not on it — of the client companies that are allowed to use OAuth and OpenID to redirect to them. But he said he had contacted a number of these authentication companies, who all shifted blame elsewhere.

 

Wang told CNET Facebook had told him it “understood the risks associated with OAuth 2.0″ but that fixing the flaw would be “something that can’t be accomplished in the short term." Google and LinkedIn allegedly told Wang they were looking into the issue, while Microsoft said the issue did not exist on its own sites.

 

Covert Redirect appears to exist in the implementations of the OpenID and OAuth standards used on client websites and apps. But because these two standards are open-source and were developed by a group of volunteers, there’s no company or dedicated team that could devote itself to fixing the issue.

 

 

Where does that leave things?

“Given the trust users put in Facebook and other major OAuth providers, I think it will be easy for attackers to trick people into giving some access to their personal information stored on those service," Chris Wysopal, chief technology officer of Boston-area security firm Veracode and a member of the legendary 1990s hackerspace the L0pht, told CNET.

 

“It’s not easy to fix, and any effective remedies would negatively impact the user experience," Jeremiah Grossman, founder of Santa Clara, Calif.-based WhiteHat Security, told CNET. “Just another example that Web security is fundamentally broken and the powers that be have little incentive to address the inherent flaws."

 

Users should be extra-wary of login popups on Web pages. If you wish to log into a given website, it might be better to use an account specific to that website instead of logging in with Facebook, Twitter, or another authentication company, which would require the use of OAuth and/or OpenID to do.

 

If you think someone has gained access to one of your online accounts, notify the service and change that account’s password immediately.

 

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:

http://www.tomsguide.com/us/facebook-google-covert-redirect-flaw,news-18726.html

http://www.scmagazine.com/covert-redirect-vulnerability-impacts-oauth-20-openid/article/345407/

http://news.yahoo.com/facebook-google-users-threatened-security-192547549.html

http://thehackernews.com/2014/05/nasty-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html

http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2014/05/05/facebook-google-users-threatened-by-new-security-flaw/

http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/120695795041

http://russiapost.blogspot.ru/2015/05/openid-oauth-20.html

http://www.diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/covert_redirect/

https://itswift.wordpress.com/2014/05/06/microsoft-google-facebook-attacked/

http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512015420103814617/

http://itsecurity.lofter.com/post/1cfbf9e7_72e2dbe

http://ithut.tumblr.com/post/119493304233/securitypost-une-faille-dans-lintegration

http://japanbroad.blogspot.jp/2015/05/oauthopenid-facebook.html

http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_6f0f291

https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/05/11/covert-redirect-attack-worldwide/

http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/119489968576/securitypost-sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-2-0-und

http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-security/facebook-google-attack/